Qin and Han Dynasties, Hexi area still vassals powerful Xiongnu, the early Han Hun invasion, the emperor emperor Yujia personal expedition, unfortunately trapped white mountain, only contributions sum, then marriage policy lasted for many years. By the two dynasties emperor Wenjing to recuperate, is flush with cash. As a generation of male owners, the emperor of a war and the determination to get ready for battle. First he sent Zhang Qian to the western regions, combined with darouzhi, then sent Weiqing, Huo three times against the huns. Although the former did not achieve the original intention, is the history of Chinese and foreign traffic extremely important in a pen, lasted 13 years of journey unprecedented to the central and western regions linked together, for the opening of the future of the silk road made indelible contributions, the historian Sima Qian praised it said "hollowed out". The latter successfully repel Hun, control of the Hexi Corridor, set four county in Hexi, construction of Yang Guan, the Yumen second pass, make the Huns and then unable to south. For the further control of the western regions, Martial emperor of Han Dynasty troops on the west, car division, cutting, breaking Loulan, according to bowl, Messenger Xiaowei began as a system of management. Xuandi, Ambassador to the western regions frontier Command commander, the highest military governor for Western han. The Western Han Dynasty, the western regions according to the weight to disarray, the early Eastern Han Dynasty, the general Dou Xian break Hun, banchao against western regions. During the western regions frontier command make Han banchao, to regain control of the western regions. 166 BC, the Roman Qin Wang Antoninus sent to appear before the Han Emperor Huan, marking the beginning of Chinese and Western cultural exchanges, the silk road was officially opened and extends to the European. Also in this period, Buddhism was introduced into China.
During Wei and Jin Dynasties, silk road development, has transitional characteristics from the Han Dynasty to the Sui and Tang dynasties. Wen chengdi the Northern Wei period, Persia and the Northern Wei Dynasty established direct contact, "Wei Shu" recorded in this period has ten Persian mission came to the situation, and the Luoyang Qielan Ji record Silk Road traders traveling to and from the prosperous situation. The Northern Wei Dynasty in South Luoyang with Silk Road conference hall to customers. The Persian messenger also along the Silk Road into the southern, they walk is western the Tuyuhun exit south of Yizhou along the Yangtze River to Jiankang road. It was also in this period, Buddhism flourished, Three Kingdoms period already monks to Luoyang classic translation. Because at that time the scripture translation poor, the Sixth Hospital of Zhu in 260 BC from Chang'an of came to the western at the Tian, where copying the products Prajna "Sanskrit over 600000 words is westbound in the history of the law of the first person. The Western Jin Dynasty, according to legend, two things Beijing Temple has reached 180, 3700 monks. Yongjia Nandu when a succession of Buddhism in the South and from Jiangdong, shengjiyishi. The degree of the monks of Tianzhu West show, learning Buddha law, made scriptures return to China, is recorded first person to reach India. The northern and Southern Dynasties, the northern most rulers to promote Buddhism, many important grottoes were cut at this time. The Buddhism in Mount Lu and health center. This period has also appeared in some monks far-reaching influence in the history of Buddhism, such as northern Kumarajiva, Dao, south of Huiyuan, Buddha epilogue Batuo Luo.
The Sui and Tang Dynasties, the development of the Silk Road to the historical peak. The emperor had western 30 countries frequency to the Central Plains tribute, the emperor in Daxing outside set square hall, for the Quartet visitors. At the beginning of the Tang Dynasty court inherited development policy of Han Dynasty, of Western troops, defeated the Turks, Gaochang, "Anxi town", return Anxi frontier command jurisdiction. Wu Zhou period and Beiting frontier command, under the jurisdiction of the Tianshan Mountains to the north of Al Taishan and Balkhash lake west of the vast area. Anxi and Beiting two frontier command as the Tang Dynasty in the western regions of highest administrative and military institutions, the Tang Dynasty in the western regions to effectively exercise their rights. Since the Tang Dynasty strong strength and on the Western long-term effective control, and by the open attitude to accommodate a variety of culture, a time of East and West trade, cultural exchanges reached an unprecedented scale. The southern silk, porcelain, tea flow through the Grande Canale to the two Beijing, and exported to the west through the silk road. Merchants in Western Asia and Central Asia brought in a large number of luxury glass products, gold and silver, a large number of Jewish businessmen have also flocked to. With the development of trade, religious exchanges have become increasingly frequent, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, Manichaeism and Islam in Chang'an City in Tang Dynasty Imperial Center have tracked. In this period, walking along the silk road is the most famous monks, is undoubtedly the tripitaka. At that time, Japan in the East is also affected by the Silk Road, Kentoushi brought back a lot of treasures in the western regions. Of course, back to Japan and buddhism. The Tang Empire with tolerant attitude to build a bright and colorful world empire. However, after the rebellion of an and Shi, Datang fortunes worsened, the western regions is gradually falling into the hands of the hands of Uighur, and epic picture of the world culture and trade exchanges will slowly fall next heavy curtain.
The Five Dynasties, the Central Plains civil strife, the inability to control the western regions. Help Tang pacify rebellion of the Uighur rise in the western regions and West, a in Turpan as the center established Gaochang Uighur kingdom; has been in Ganzhou (Zhangye) as the center, known to history as West Uighur. The Uighur, the silk road is an important lifeline, attached great importance to its economic interests. To seize the channel, and the Tibet, was repeated for the party. Especially in the Xixia on the Silk Road in the past business often looted or extortion, to defend the Silk Road unimpeded, make oneself in the Silk Road's interests are not violated, several years in a row to repel Xixia offensive. Uighur controlled areas in the transportation hub of the Silk Road, Five Dynasties and later in the song, Liao and Xixia if you want to leading to Central Asia must pass through here, by virtue of the occupied geographical advantage and good at business of traditional, a time of the Silk Road trade to the Uighur people dominated. At the same time, the local tolerance of ethnic and religious policies also contributed to the diversification of civilization and the historical process of national fusion.
In the more than 300 years, the earth is no longer during the Tang Dynasty the pluralistic development of Empire, instead, split the song, Liao, Jin, Western Xia regime, under such a historical pattern, the silk road also showed a new look. On the silk road race, Xixia and Huihe launched a up to 30 years of struggle, finally in the period of Xia Jingzong liyuanhao defeat of Ganzhou Uighur, clutch according to the Hexi area. Xixia rulers to trade on the silk road very seriously, Arabia and western traders often do business. Xixia merchants east of Liao and song, west western selling products, transport and silk treasures, which gained huge benefits. As the Central Plains Dynasty of Song Dynasty, in Xixia jinglve Silk Road and interest to suffer the serious damage, in the land silk road status plummeted. But due to the Song Dynasty mercantilist fiscal strategy through, domestic trade is unprecedented prosperity, international trade also actively seek the road of the development, and at this time of the marine shipbuilding industry also has the great development. For Arabia businessmen, the rich is difficult to match the trade object of xixia. It is in this context, the impressive Maritime Silk Road, became the main channel of East West trade. In addition to the Arab, East Asia, Japan, Korea, Persia in Central Asia, South Asia, India, and Southeast Asia, and even the Eastern Roman Empire more than 50 countries are with Song Dynasty maintained close trade contacts, trade line of East Japan, West Africa, South Korea and Indonesia. At that time, Guangzhou, Quanzhou, Minnesota is the world's largest port, port set up for foreign living Fanfang, Song Dynasty special in the local set up Shibo department carries on the management to the maritime trade.
In Yuan Dynasty, the Mongols established across Europe, Asia and the two states of the world empire, except outside the Yuan Dynasty as sweat District, from the east to the West followed by the establishment of the Chagatai Khanate north and south of the Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang and Central Asia in the vicinity of Ogedei khanate, West Asia region of the Ilkhanids, Southeast Asia and Eastern Europe the Kipchak khanate. The establishment of the Mongolia Empire makes the Asia Europe formed an unprecedented huge traffic network system. As a prairie nation, the Mongolian people are born with the mobility, but also makes it easier to have a relationship with the commodity economy. During this period the reopening of the Silk Road, very smooth, Eurasia launched a multi-level economic and cultural exchanges. As the hub of East and west international trade or international trade and have close relationship in some areas, national commodity markets, and materials distribution corresponding to the formation and development, such as the world trade center of Yuan Dadu, Silk Road on the important commercial town can yishiha ear (Kashgar), Suzhou (Jiuquan), don't lost eight (Changji), rancid fire, (Turpan). Gunpowder, printing of the four great inventions in this is the time to spread to Europe, the influence to change the process of European civilization, and the world in the future. In the Yuan Dynasty, the silk road is a famous Italian footprint, he is Mark Polo. In the four years after the trip, he arrived in 1275 Yuandadu after spending 17 years in China travel. Return to Italy was captured in the naval battle of Marco Polo in prison to friends in the oral experience and knowledge of the East, and the birth of the famous "Marco Polo". The Yuan Dynasty is the richness in the book, in the future open up new routes, aroused warm yearning for the East europeans.
The silk road is the sunset, sunset. The early Ming Dynasty, Europe, West Asia, the caravan still along the Yuan Dynasty silk road Oxbow China trading goods that traditional, but this scene did not last too long. During the Hongwu Period, Ming Taizu to prevent along the Navy valve remnants and pirates nuisance on the grounds, invoke the ban on prohibited Chinese people overseas business, also limits foreign businessmen to come to China to trade. Yongle, although Zheng He's feat, but its essence is the navigation behavior tributary nature, can not be sustained. Longqing, bright prosperously announced the lifting of the ban on maritime trade, known to history as Khanh switch, time appeared a new situation of opening-up, the boom in the southeast coastal areas of private overseas trade, large amounts of silver into China. In order to ensure the safety of northwest and along the Silk Road in order, the establishment of "Kansai seven Wei in the west of Jiayuguan". During the middle and late Ming Dynasty, the government considered the policy of the traditional silk road. Jiajing three years (1524), "Kansai seven Wei" all pulled into Jiayuguan, Jiayuguan block. This action shows that the Ming Dynasty to the edge of the line of defense to its extent, no longer willing to intervene in the Central Asian region of the dispute over the past two thousand years, when the closure of the Silk Road, and finally to the end. Former businessman, monks exchanges on the Dunhuang, Jiuquan has become a frontier, Yang Guan, Yumen Guan Er also flooded in the sand. After the Ming Dynasty and the Qing Dynasty, again using a prohibition policy, adopted a closed door policy, led China to withdraw from the competition in the ocean, and the direction of development of civilization and the world drifting further and further away. Although in Guangzhou with thirteen. As a stronghold of the foreign trade, but its scale far from former prosperity and compared. In 1793, when the Macartney mission arrived in the ancient country, it has been the scene of Xishan sunset. Until 1840, in the case of the ship's guns, the old and heavy doors opened again.
In 1900, Taoist Wang Yuanlu inadvertently discovered the Mogao Grottoes cangjing Dong, which is 20 of the world's most in the world's greatest archaeological discoveries of. Chinese and foreign scholars in the decades that followed the inner heel to. Dunhuang, the Silk Road, in the context of cultural studies to return to the world view. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, Sven Hedin, Stein, Paul Pelliot, Auden, Otani Guangrui etc. foreign explorers, scholars in-depth in the Hexi Corridor and the western regions, repeatedly archaeological exploration, from the perspective of linguistics, archaeology and history to explore, defined in the western regions and the Hexi Corridor, the value of the become important research objects in oriental studies. At the same time, the domestic scholars also pay attention to the study of Dunhuang instruments as the representative of the historical documents and the Mogao Grottoes as the representative of the stone, painting historical relics. 1927 - 1935, China and Sweden combined group northwest scientific investigation group in Northwest vast area to carry on the inspection, they have achieved many subjects in meteorological, geological paleontological survey, archaeology and ethnology fruitful results. Yuan Fuli found in Northern Xinjiang dinosaur, Bergmann in the Ruoshui found a large number of Juyan bamboo slips of the Han Dynasty and found in the Lop Nur river sites, Hornell and Chen Zongqi on the Lop Nur, the investigation at the time was a sensation of the major achievements of the international academic community; Ding Daoheng found Baiyun e broad iron ore and Hao De, who collected meteorological and geographical data, on the Western China economic construction and route opened, highway traffic and the "Silk Road" the revival of far-reaching.
On the morning of 7 September 2013, Chinese President Xi Jinping at the University of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev made an important speech, proposed the construction of a common "economic belt along the Silk Road". In order to make the economic ties between European and Asian countries more closely and cooperate with each other more in-depth, development space broader, the innovative model of cooperation, work together to build "the Silk Road Economic Belt". This is a benefit of the peoples along the major cause of. The Silk Road Economic Belt is formed between China and west countries a in regional economic cooperation, roughly on top of the range of the ancient Silk Road, east of holding the Asia Pacific Economic Circle, the west line of the developed European economic circle, is considered to be "the world the longest and most has the development potential of the economic corridor. China section of Northwest Shaanxi, Gansu, including Qinghai, Ningxia, Xinjiang and other five provinces, Chongqing, Sichuan, southwest of Yunnan, Guangxi and other four provinces. Silk Road economy with a vast territory, rich in natural resources, mineral resources, energy resources, land resources and valuable tourism resources, known as the twenty-first Century strategic energy and resource base.